100 years ago, in Peru, a tall guy who was a professor of history at Yale University left his camp in a valley northwest of Cusco, and crossed the jungle between the clouds to reach a mountain range more than 2,200 meters above the sea level. There, on the thunderous Urubamba River, he found an ancient stone citadel: sculpted terraces and tombs, granite buildings and polished walls covered by centuries of vines and vegetation.
Hiram Bingham had met the ruins of Machu Picchu, which he believed was the "lost city of the Incas". "Machu Picchu could be the most important ruins ever discovered in South America since the time of the Spanish conquest," he wrote in a National Geographic issue of 1913.
Hiram Bingham was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, on November 19, 1875. It is he who after an expedition uncovered the citadel of Machu Picchu. The American archaeologist and political scholar began the scientific investigation of Machu Picchu Andes, in the ancient territory occupied by the Incas, in a remote area of the Peruvian Andes. However, it is known that Hiram Bingham could have arrived in Machu Picchu after the German adventurer Augusto Berns, who, according to some studies, arrived in the lost city of the Incas in 1867. However, it was Bingham and his work "The lost city of the Incas" who made the city of Machu Picchu known to the world.
On July 23, 1911, the expedition of Hiram Bingham arrives near the citadel of Machu Picchu. The weather conditions were quite unfavorable, so they sought accommodation in the homes of some farmers who lived very close to the area, in this place, the farmer Melchor Arteaga tells the American explorer, about the existence of the ruins of an ancient city of stone, and accept the sum of a silver dollar to drive it to that place.
On July 24, and despite the bad weather, Bingham, the peasant and a representative of the Peruvian government, ventured to cross the mighty Vilcanota River and explore Machu Picchu.
Bingham, the peasant and a representative of the Peruvian government were in spite of the bad weather, gray clouds and torrential tropical rains. The other members of the team preferred to take shelter in the place. The teacher and the two companions had to cross the wild Vilcanota river through a weak bridge of trunks, and then continue walking to Machu Picchu through approximately 700 meters of a steep mountain of dense vegetation. Halfway there they met with peasant children who lived nearby, they agreed to guide the 3 men because they knew the territory very well. They climbed for hours until finally their perseverance was rewarded. He had before his eyes the strength of the secret mountain, which was used as a refuge against Spanish rule in the sixteenth century.
On July 24, 1911 Hiram Bingham discovers the Citadel of Machu Picchu. The expedition owed its success largely to the firmness and courage of Bingham. That he continued his expedition putting his life many times at risk to do it. There he found numerous masonry remains and was particularly shocked by the similarity of one of the structures in the Temple of the Sun in the imperial city of Cusco.
In 1912 Bingham led the expedition that excavated Machu Picchu, and returned there in 1915. He convinced himself that Machu Picchu was Vilcabamba, and it was not until the 1950s that his claim was seriously debated. Subsequent explorations of Bingham, revealed important archaeological groups such as Vitcos and Espiritu Pampa. A larger ruin excavated in 1964 by the American archaeologist Gene Savoy, proved to be a more likely site for Vilcabamba.
After Bingham declared to Machu Picchu the lost city of the Incas, the news spread quickly, consolidating and popularizing the reputation of Bingham Machu Picchu, showing the city as a place of important history and mystery of antiquity.
Bingham's reputation as the Machu Picchu discovered also grew.
The return route that takes tourists by bus to the old city is now called Hiram Bingham Highway, as is a luxury train Machu Picchu that takes wealthy visitors through a Machu Picchu train tour from the city of Cusco to Aguas Calientes (city of Machu Picchu).
Even the fictional character Indiana Jones is supposed based on Hiram Bingham Machu Picchu and his book The Lost City of the Incas, published in 1948, it was a bestseller (and still is a great read).