About 15,000 years ago, the first people to inhabit what is now Peru filtered down from Northand Central America. They were confronted by diverse and extreme environments at varying altitudes. An ocean rich in fish contrasts with sterile coastal valleys that are only habitable where riveres cut through the desert. To the east the Valleys and high plateau of the Andes mountains slope down to Amazon rainforest, home to exotic foods, animals, and medicinal plants.
Modern Peru incorporates all of these environmental zones. Long before the centralized stated of the Inca empire, people recognized the need to secure access to varied resources and products. Images of animals and plants from coast and jungle are found on pottery and stone monuments in highland Chavin culture, 400BC. Around AD 500 the Nazca Lines etched out in the desert also featured exotic jungle animals. In the 15th century the Incas achieved unprecedented control over people, food, crops, plants, and domesticated animals that incorporated coast, highlands, and the semitropical valleys. Attempts to control coca leaf production in the warmer valleys may explain Machu Picchu, which guards an important trading route.
When the Spaniards arrived in the 16th century, the search for El dorado, the fabled city of gold, extended the Viceroyalty of Peru into the amazon lowlands. Since independence in 1821, diputes, wars, and treaties over Amazon territory have been fueled increasingly by the knowledge of mineral oil and natural gas under the forest floor.
The Inca civilization arose rather late in the process of cultural development of the pre-Hispanic Andes and its history occupies, barely, a century within the 20 thousand years that has the presence of man in the Peruvian territory. Twenty thousand years of history can be seen in one of the largest archaeological networks in the world and the largest in South America.
Located in the north of Peru, in the district of Magdalena de Cao (La Libertad); this archaeological complex turns out to be one of the most important on the north coast, because their huacas, which respond to the names of Huaca Cortada, Huaca Cao and Huaca Prieta, became one of the important centers, both political and religious of the Mochica culture; and one of the emblematic cultures of our Ancient Peru.
One of the main findings of the El Brujo archaeological complex corresponds to the tomb of the Lady of Cao, a woman who assumed the role of ruler and who was an important leader in the history of Peru. Treating thus, in an important discovery in the Peruvian culture.
Considered as the oldest civilization of the entire American continent and in turn representative of the origin of Andean culture, this city, located in the province of Barranca (north of Lima); it emphasizes in her his six pyramids with their respective circular squares. Among the most important findings regarding instruments is Quipu, a string-based element that served to record information, being the oldest in the world.
Another of the most important archaeological sites in all of Peru, is located on the north coast, exactly five kilometers south of Trujillo: The temple of the Sun and the Moon, one of the most mystical sanctuaries in the entire country. Conformed by pyramids up to forty-three meters high made for administrative purposes.
It is one of the most important archaeological sites of the central coast of Peru. Made up of: great pyramids, squares, temples, palaces, elements that really define the hierarchies that existed at the political, cultural and religious level of the place.
The tomb of the Lord of Sipán, located in Lambayeque and whose discovery was made by the prominent archaeologist Walter Alva. It turns out that he was one of the most powerful characters of Ancient Peru. Find that spread worldwide, due to its cultural, historical and social relevance.
Many will have heard it because it is one of the main starting points towards Machu Picchu, but this city - the only Inca that remains inhabited - has its own charms that are incomparable. Let's start with its location, in the middle of the mountains and meadows that make up the Sacred Valley, which guarantees pure and absolutely moving landscapes.
Let's continue with its history, since one of the main Inca leaders of the indigenous resistance settled here and its great stone constructions demonstrate a high sense of military strategy; besides an impressive understanding of the climate and the atmosphere, since in one of its mountains agricultural deposits that maintained a temperature similar to the artificial refrigeration were built. Once you walk through its small cobblestone streets, you will want to spend one or more nights here enjoying a quiet environment while you continue to learn new things about this civilization that never ceases to amaze us.