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Native Trees of Peru

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Native Trees of Peru

Some of the native trees of Perú are the macua, quenua, cinchona, paico, cat's claw or custard apple. Peru has about 25,000 native plant species, 10% of all plant species in the world.

 

Thanks to its geographical diversity (coastal deserts, mountains or jungle), 28 different climates different from the 32 possible in the world and 84 of the 103 existing ecological zones, the Peruvian flora is one of the most diverse on the planet.

 

They are known as native trees in Perú since they are their own or originated in the Peruvian country, some of them being food and / or medicinal. Native plants are those that originated naturally in the place where they are before the very existence of the human being. They are plants typical of the area. They have been there before the others, which is why they are more adapted to the climate, the type of soil, the pH, several of the pests that commonly attack in that area have created resistance.

 

The properties of native trees of Perú have been known since ancient times. Some of these plants have been cultivated in Peru since 1600 B.C. since the native settlers used these plants for their medicinal properties and potential effects.

 

Furthermore, the Incas considered some of these native plants as "a gift from the gods"; They cultivated them as food and used them in religious ceremonies for dances and rituals.

 

Only in 2009, the country exported native trees of Peruvian Andes such as camu camu, maca, cat's claw, tara, quinoa, sacha inchi, achiote, aguaymanto, walnuts, purple corn, giant corn from Cusco, kiwicha and yacón, with a value close to 87 million dollars.

 

Cedar, mahogany and shihuahuaco are the most popular species for export. Among the main destinations are the US, Mexico and China.

 

Those who like to hike and observe nature, whether day or night, should not miss the opportunity to visit the Peruvian jungle; with a guide to lead the march through the forest, loaded with flora and fauna.

While listening to the sound that birds or fish make from the lagoons or rivers, you can see imposing trees that end in large crowns that seem to support the sky. Alfredo Biasevich, representative of Forestal Otorongo, comments that there are more than 3,000 different species of trees and that "they all grow mixed".

 

Explains that when dealers harvest wood, in the freed space, the small trees that lived in the shade of the removed tree grow.

 

Of those 3,000 species - Biasevich points out, probably 25 or 30 have commercial value, and only eight are exported. "The main markets to which Peruvian wood is sent are the US, Mexico and China, and some countries in Europe," he explained.

 

The trees in Perú with the highest demand are shihuahuaco, mahogany and cedar. It is said that for one mahogany tree there are six cedar trees and for each cedar there are 10 shihuahuaco trees.

 

How long does it take for trees in Perú to be removable?

According to Forestal Otorongo, you can have a timber tree in 30 years, on average. "But the legal companies work in the conservation of permanent forest, there are other forests that are in reserve and there are protected natural areas where nobody touches those trees," clarifies the representative of the company.

 

A shihuahuaco reaches a timber dimension of between 30 to 40 years. They have a height of up to 40 meters, but the removable part is 20 meters. "It is cut between 6 to 7 meters to transport it. A truck has about five pieces."

 

In the shihuahuaco, the minimum legal cut diameter is 51cm and in the case of Forestal Otorongo they cut 70cm; the diameter allowed in mahogany is 75 and 61cm screw.

 

"Of the usable trees 70% is used, but only 55% is used in screw; because when the tomb is going to be made, some integrity tests are carried out on the tree," he says.

 

Finally, it should be noted that although wood extraction is practiced, this activity is carried out in areas allowed by the State; because the forest guarantees the provision of water in a continuous way; Regardless of drought, vegetation cover allows streams to continue to flow under the treetops.

 

Native Trees of Peruvian Andes

Queuna

It is a small native tree of Peruvian Andes. Its leaves are small, its trunk is crooked and its bark is reddish. It is peeled like paper and is known as "the tourist tree".

 

Cinchona

It is a native tree of Peruvian Andes of about 10 meters, native to the Andes, being well known for being present on the coat of arms of the Peruvian national flag. Its bark contains quinine and is used to treat malaria.

 

Puya Raimondi

It is a wild species endemic to the Andes. It reaches 12 meters in height and produces up to 8,000 flowers throughout its life, which can last up to 100 years.

 

Huarango

It reaches 10 m in height, extremely long roots has the deepest roots in the world, they can measure up to 70 meters by bringing water to the surface makes life possible for other plants as well.

 

It has long yellowish green flowers.

 

The fruit of the tree, called huaranga, is highly nutritious. Whaley notes that "pre-Columbian cultures survived during periods of drought by eating only this fruit."

 

The bark is used to tan leather. The resin from its trunk is used for dyeing. The seeds are food for livestock, and the flowers are attractive to bees. The leaves that fall to the ground are used as organic fertilizer and receive the name of "poña, fist, mulch, litter".

 

Ceibo

Also known as ‘Palo Borracho’ or ‘Lupuna’. The Ceibo belongs to the Bombáceas family and is the largest species in the city.

 

It is a very long-lived tree that reaches 25 meters in height. Its trunk reaches 2 meters in diameter, presenting stingers and a bottle shape. Its seeds are contained in hanging capsules filled with cotton, which is used by birds for their nests and by man to make cushions.

 

It requires spaces such as parks or berms in avenues for its healthy development.

 

Molle Serrano

Also known as Peruvian pepper, it belongs to the Anacardáceas family and is a tree native to the Andes of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia.

 

It is a long-lived tree of approximate height between 4 and 8 meters, with a green and globular crown, sinuous trunk and semi-deep root.

 

It is a highly recommended species for the city of Lima, since it has a rapid growth, requires undemanding soil and direct light. Its propagation is through seeds, it is resistant to diseases and does not require abundant irrigation. It is a very versatile tree and is used for parks, berms and gardens.

 

Elder

It is a member of the family of the Caprifoleáceas. It is a small tree, not more than 5 meters high. Features compound sheets with serrated edges. It is characterized because throughout the year it presents small and numerous white flowers, which are found gathered at the end of the branches.

 

On the Peruvian coast it does not bear fruit as in the Andes, but it blooms very well, becoming an ornamental tree.

 

Tara

Height: youth, 2-5 m tall, but which can measure up to 12 m in old age.

 

Its flowers are reddish yellow arranged in clusters from 8 cm to 15 cm long. It blooms from January to March.

 

Its fruits are esplanade and indehiscent orange pods of 8 cm to 10 cm long and approximately 2 cm wide, containing from 4 to 7 rounded seed grains from 0.6 cm to 0.7 cm in diameter and are blackish brown when they are ripe.

 

Each TARA tree can yield an average of 20 Kg to 40 Kg of pod harvesting twice a year. Generally a TARA tree bears fruit at three years, and if it is wild at four years. The production cycle is prolonged in irrigated land, reaching an average of up to 85 years. It begins to produce prematurely at 4, reaches its highest production after 15 years and begins to decrease at 65 and is practically unproductive at 85 years. Its average life span is one hundred years and the area occupied by each tree is 10 square meters.

 

It is used as a medicinal plant, since the infusion prepared with its leaves would counteract diabetes, reduce cough and act as a diuretic (Font Quer, 1982). Its fruit rich in tannins plus its seeds rich in hydrocolioids make this legume highly appreciated by tanneries and food companies that require thickeners.

 

Huaranhuay

These native trees of Peruvian Andes can exceed seven meters in height, their limited root growth does not produce raising of tracks and sidewalks.

 

The intense yellow flowers grouped in clusters appear at the tips of the branches and attract butterflies, hummingbirds and other types of birds. In addition, they have a pleasant fragrance. To ensure continued flowering, pruning should be done before spring.

 

 

It is used for conjunctivitis and headaches. In its chemistry it reports Tecomina, cytosterol, alkanes, rutin, quercitina and luteolina (Jhonston, 1979). The infusion in cold water of the tender leaves is used to treat liver, kidney and gallbladder problems, as well as stomach pain.

 

Boliche

The flower groups are lateral panicles, 15-45 cm long with numerous small whitish flowers, producing small sticky brown fruits that foam on contact with water.

 

Propagation can be done by seed. As a pre-germination treatment, the seeds are immersed in cold water for a week, changing the water day by day.

 

If you suffer from hair loss, dandruff, seborrhea or psoriasis, you can use Peru Natural's bowling shampoo and medicinal plants daily. Leave the foam on the hair for five minutes and after rinsing apply sanky lotion, aloe and placenta, and comb. With these recommendations from the first week the hair loss will stop and with the course of the first three months it will grow again.

 

Forage acacia

Shrubs 2 - 3 meters / Trees 10 meters according to management. The primary root penetrates into the deep layers of the soil and uses the water and minerals below the area where the roots of many agricultural plants reach.

 

The fruit is a straight, flattened, leathery, brown legume with an attenuated base, with a pubescent pedicel of about 3 cm, with a beak and is 10-20 cm long by 1.5-4 cm wide. It has dehiscence due to the 2 longitudinal sutures.

 

Protein bank, firewood, cut and carry, green manure, agroforestry systems, concentrate for poultry, pigs and cattle, grazing, live barriers, windbreaks, silage The fruits are highly appreciated for their high content of vitamin A and protein (46%). Ripe seeds are used as coffee substitutes.

 

Treks to see native trees in Perú:

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