The city of cusco is the historical capital of Peru, the country's tourism center, and the ancient capital of the inca empire, the city's unique heritage is preserved in the cyclopean stone walls and foundations of the numerous inca buildings and monuments cusco was originally named Qosqo in Incan times, which means "Navel of the Earth" in the native Quechua language. Indeed, Cusco's geographical location was at the center of the monumental Inkan Empire, and it was from here that all roads deported to the four regions of the Inka civilization called Tawantinsuyo. The regions included Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu, Qollasuyu and Contisuyu. From the colonial era, cusco inherited important religious constructions, many of which were built on top of original Inkan foundations. And in the XVI and XVII centuries Cusco was the melting pot from where the Cusqueña School of painting and sculpture radiated all over the world.
The founding of Cusco is attributed to Manqo Qhapaq, the first Inka. The city was originally created in the shape of a puma (an Inkan deity) and was built around a tremendous central square the auqaypata, part of which is today's Plaza de Armas. In ancient time, Cusco consisted of two zones: the Hanan Qosqo ("High Zone") and the Hurin Qosqo ("Low Zone") the city's remarkable buildings were constructed from huge stone blocks, perfectly joined together, in true polygonal construction. Ultimately, the foundations of these sturdy buildings were used by the Spanish, who built palaces and churches over them. This mestizo mix of architecture and culture gives Cusco its unique world image today.
Cusco was declared part of the cultural patrimony of the world by UNESCO in 1983.